Skip to content

The New, New Economy of Accelerating Returns

2012 December 9

If you had to put a date on it, the digital age began in 1948, when two discoveries came out of Bell Labs:  the transistor and information theory.  The world would be forever changed, but at the time, few noticed.

Having just come out of the most devastating war in history, the planet was a very uncertain place.  The Iron Curtain was descending upon Europe, war would come to Asia in just a few short years and few cared what the eggheads were doing.

It took decades for the impact to become clear, but eventually people noticed that something important was going on.  Computers were not only getting better, they were getting cheaper and in the ’90’s, the term “new economy” entered the lexicon.  Now, that similar trends are taking hold in energy and medicine the impact will be even greater.

The Digital Laws

In the 1960’s, Intel cofounder Gordon Moore noticed that the performance of computer chips was increasing at a dizzying pace, doubling roughly every 18 months.  The phenomenon came to be known as Moore’s Law and even today, a half century later it’s still very much in force.

As I explained in an earlier post about digital laws, there are similar trends in other areas of information technology.  Kryder’s law says that memory efficiency doubles every 12 months (a bit faster than Moore’s law) and Nielsen’s law observes that bandwidth doubles every 21 months (a bit slower, which is why we’re so constrained by connection speeds).

While very few people are aware of these laws in a formal sense, even the general public notices them in everyday life.  It’s been a long time since we’ve needed to delete e-mails in order to free up disk space and we’ve become used to ads reminding us that even the superfast speeds on our mobile phones will soon be “so 36 seconds ago…”

Yet, the power of information has become so pervasive it’s beginning to invade other aspects of everyday life although, much like a half century ago, most of it is still happening behind the scenes.  That’s about to change.

The New Age of Technology Based Energy

Information technology is a relatively young industry.  As late as 1943, Thomas Watson of IBM said that he thought that there was a market for only 5 computers in the world. Today, of course, the market is enormous, amounting to about $2.1 trillion according to Forrester including equipment and services.

By contrast, the global market for energy is already about $6 trillion and we can already see some of the same trends that drove the computer industry.

The chart above, prepared by MIT professor Ely Sachs, now at 1366 Technologies, looks eerily similar to the Moore’s law chart.  As solar power continues along this path and becomes cheaper than coal, the impact will be enormous.  Mr. Sach’s testified to Congress that by 2020 solar will be the largest manufacturing industry in history.

As I’ve noted before, the energy revolution is already underway and not just in solar power.  Similar advances are being seen in biofuels and battery technology as well.

Modern Day Methuselahs

According to the Bible, the longest living person in history was Methuselah, who reached the ripe old age of 969.  To my knowledge, no one has come close recently and while life expectancy is increasing (there are currently more than 70,000 people aged over 100 in the U.S.), we’re still a long way off.

However, that may change as genomics and other health care technologies start to exhibit the same behavior as computers and energy.  The prestigious journal Nature reports that a new machine coming out soon will cost $900 and sequence an entire genome in 15 minutes (vs. billions of dollars and a dozen years for the one completed in 2003).

While it is still a long road from genomics to dramatically improved longevity, the impact of the technology already becoming clear.  An article in The Economist explains how the ENCODE project seeks to translate genomes into actual cures for disease, by building a database of the proteins that specific sequences code for.

It doesn’t end with gene sequencing either.  Synthetic blood is already a reality and is saving lives.  Scientists are working to enhance it further with nanotechnology called respirocytes that can store hundreds of times more oxygen than natural hemoglobin does. Others are working on using our own cells to create 3D printed body parts.

We’re still a long way off from immortality, but half a century ago, when computers cost millions of dollars and took up entire rooms, an iPhone would have seemed pretty outrageous.  50 years from now, living hundreds of years could be the norm.  Ray Kurzweil believes it could happen even sooner.

The 4 Gigabyte Question

What’s important to understand about these trends is they are not linear (i.e. increasing at a constant rate) but exponential (i.e. accelerating at a constant rate).  So while computer storage is 1000 times more efficient than it was 10 years ago, in another decade it will be a million times better than a decade ago.

That shift from scarcity to abundance changes both economics and behavior.  When I got my first laptop, 1GB of memory was a big deal that and therefore worth a premium.  Now, there are so many companies offering me 4GB for free, I don’t take most of them up on it. Not only do I have more memory than I need, but I’ll soon have a thousand times more.

Today, energy is probably our scarcest economic commodity, but by 2030, solar will cost half of what coal does and will probably be a quarter of the price ten years after that. While medical costs are spiraling up now, as technology takes over there’s no reason they can’t come crashing down in the decades to come.

So that leaves us with an interesting question.  If I can get 4GB of online for free today, what’s to stop me from getting 40 years of life or enough electricity to power my house for a year for pennies in the future?  If economics is the study of how we allocate scarcity, what if we find ourselves awash in everything we now hold sacred?

Put another way, in a world of abundance, what will we pay for?

– Greg

13 Responses leave one →
  1. December 9, 2012


    Moore’s law growth and abundance is not a problem in the virtual world as the virtual world grows at the rate of Moore – it expands to fit.

    Moore’s law growth and abundance may cause big problems in the physical world – at least on finite planet earth.

    Population density is already causing problems and I dread to think what will happen if we all live for a 1,000 years. I also dread to think what effect an elit gerontocracy would have upon the human gene pool.

    For so long we have been subject to the consequences of the finite – the elitism and consequent need for control that comes from scarcity Moore’s law growth and abundance will pose some fundamental challenges for humanity in the years ahead.

  2. December 9, 2012


    I see your point. However, as developing nations advance, birth rates tend to drop drastically.

    – Greg

  3. Chris permalink
    December 9, 2012

    Hi Greg,
    I always look forward to reading your brilliant Sunday morning observations
    about every topic you tend to grapple with. Your incisive deductions about most things force one to see with different eyes and think with augmented brains. This post, however, I must take acception with for it predisposes a status quo natural world of which, although we mostly fail to admit, we are a part of and wholly dependent on.

    As Gaia rears her hackles and begins to swat we pesky irritants aside all over the planet
    I dare say business as usual, and the preogressions of the many “Laws” you relied upon in this post, will be diverted once the species survival laws/instincts take over. The laws of entropy are accelerating alarmingly pushed by the desire to consumerize the planet ever more quickly and efficiently. And now with womb to tomb marketing even targeting hot “buy” buttons on a personal level we are f#%~ ed.

    When the power grids crash from another “storm of the century” how good is your smartphone or smart home now? When the next earthquake of the coast of Japan, 7.3
    just two days ago, is a bit stronger and the “shelf ” of high level waste siting above the dead Fukushima 4 reactor comes crashing down unleashing a curtain of airborne radiation 4x greater than all the above ground atomic tests and the two bombs used (1200+) how are any of the tech laws going to help us?

    Sorry to bum out these roses predictions but as Bill McKibben said in his book Eaarth,
    and I’m paraphrasing here, “Up through the 20th Century we have been coasting downhill exploiting fossil fuels to the max from here on it will be an uphill slog as we reap what we haven’t sown, a sustainable world”

    And if this isn’t grim enough lest we not forget the energy and resource wars that have already started and will only fester further destabilizing supply chain economics and waste enormous resources at the same time.

    Interesting post as usual but based on false assumptions of the good life as infinite
    when entropic reality always trumps that set.

    Cheers and have a happy holiday.

  4. December 9, 2012

    Thanks for your insights Chris.

    – Greg

  5. December 9, 2012

    Greg –
    Fascinating support for an “upper limit” theory from Hans Rosling’s TED talk on “Religion and Babies” – The title is a bit off-putting, but the conclusions are not what you’d expect.

  6. December 9, 2012

    Thanks CJ. Great video!

    – Greg

  7. December 10, 2012

    A frightening thought – only old people in the future – the end of humanity?

    Its a theme explored in science fiction – Frank Herbert explored this in the eyes of heisenberg

    At the time when we try to introduce universal Darwinianism into our systems we at the same time wish to remove it from ourselves …. by engineering ourselves to last forever …..

    Its a frightening thought for a tipping point – Kurzweil’s Singularity – when artificial systems progress through self organising genetic principles and humans regress into an engineered steril future ….

  8. December 10, 2012

    There’s always something…

    – Greg

  9. Lindsay permalink
    December 12, 2012

    What will we pay for?

    – Not receiving adverts in all the various mediums we engage in

  10. December 12, 2012

    Interesting perspective. Thanks for sharing.

    – Greg

  11. pankaj permalink
    December 17, 2012

    land? it is going to be limited always.. im sure we are not going to mars anytime soon…

  12. Alix permalink
    January 8, 2013

    This is so awesome. Innovations in technology that can be applied to medicine in such a lifechanging and lifesaving way. A friend of mine works for Genomic Health and I was somewhat familiar with the field. But just to see how the technology has evolved in gene mapping from 2003 to now is mindblowing.

    Thanks for this post!

  13. January 8, 2013

    Thanks Alix. Glad you liked it.

    – Greg

Leave a Reply

Note: You can use basic XHTML in your comments. Your email address will never be published.

Subscribe to this comment feed via RSS